We can help you!
Code review Consultancy Trainings

Why we have a scan for Observables but not for Arrays

A while ago, during a training, I was explaining the scan operator in RxJS and how you can use it to accumulate a ‘calculated’ value over time. At some point one of the participants asked why there isn’t a scan operator for Arrays? They both have a reduce method, so why no scan right?

And actually it’s a really interesting question which showed he didn’t understand important differences between Arrays and Observables.

What does scan do in RxJS

Let’s take a look at the definition of the scan operator (from the ReactiveX.io site):

Applies an accumulator function over the source `Observable, and returns each intermediate result, with an optional seed value.

If you don’t know what the scan operator does, this definition might not make that much sense. Let’s first look at an example on how we can use the operator and then revisit this.

Let’s say that we have an Observable<number> and we want to visualize the sum of all of the numbers on the screen. This is something we can use the scan operator for.

const numbers$ = Observable.create(observer => {
  setTimeout(() => observer.next(2), 100);
  setTimeout(() => observer.next(3), 200);
  setTimeout(() => observer.next(4), 400);
  setTimeout(() => observer.next(5), 300);
  setTimeout(() => observer.next(6), 500);

  	(acc, cur) => {
    	return acc + cur;
  	0 // <-- initial value

The scan operator allows us to calculate the value by passing in an accumulator function. This function will get called with the ‘previous’ or initial value and the ‘current’ value and allows us to calculate the sum.

Let’s type out the values that will go into the accumulator function.

On the first run, the initial value will be used (second parameter passed to the scan operator) and the first value from the Observable. The calculated value will be 1 (as per our function implementation).

// acc: 0, cur: 1 -> 1

Next time the function gets called, the acc is going to be the previously returned value and the cur is the next value from the Observable. This process repeats for every value emitted by the Observable. Below you can see all of the other inputs and outputs of the accumulator function.

// acc: 1, 		cur: 2 -> 3
// acc: 3, 		cur: 3 -> 6
// acc: 6, 		cur: 4 -> 10
// acc: 10, 	cur: 5 -> 15
// acc: 15, 	cur: 6 -> 21

You can find the StackBlitz example below (open the console to see the result):

Note: You might notice that calculating values over time is something that can be really useful to calculate state. My friend Juri Strumpflohner has written an interesting article about this very topic.

Will you please tell us why there is no Array.scan

Now that we know what the scan operator for RxJS does, let’s revisit the definition:

Applies an accumulator function over the source Observable, and returns each intermediate result, with an optional seed value.

We already know what the accumulator function is. We also get what the seed value is (our initial value, in our example 0). But I want to focus on the other part of the definition, ‘returns each intermediate result’.

Let’s try and reason why it would make sense to return each intermediate result. We know that Observables can be asynchronous. They are wrappers around values that are pushed towards us, either sync or async. Since those values are delivered ‘over time’ it is very useful in a lot of scenarios to have temporary values.

Let’s think about Arrays for a second. Arrays are datastructures. These datastructures are always sync. When you get an Array, it already ‘holds’ all of the values. If we think that the scan operator will emit temporary results as values might be delivered over time, it doesn’t make sense that there is a scan operator for Arrays. Arrays are never async, so temporary calculated values wouldn’t have any benefit!


As Arrays are sync datastructures, having an operator/method that emits temporary results when accumulating the values from an Array, doesn’t makes sense. For Observables it does makes sense as the values (are|can be) delivered over time.

Kwinten Pisman

Freelance frontend architect. Occasional blogger. Reactive fan.